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What are the classifications of textiles?

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What are the classifications of textiles?

Oct 30/2020 / news / Author: DongJing

1. Classification according to different processing methods
1. Woven fabric: A fabric made of yarns that are arranged perpendicular to each other, that is, the horizontal and vertical systems are interwoven on a loom according to a certain rule. There are denim, brocade, board, linen and so on. There are many ways to classify woven fabrics.
(1) According to the types of fibers that make up the woven fabric, it is divided into pure textiles, blended textiles and interwoven fabrics.
Pure textile fabric-refers to a fabric woven from pure spun yarns of the same fiber in warp and weft. The performance of this fabric mainly reflects the characteristics of the fiber. For example, the warp and weft yarns of pure cotton fabrics are all cotton yarns (threads), such as pure cotton khaki 21×21/108×58, and the warp and weft yarns of viscose fiber fabrics are all viscose fiber yarns.
Blended fabric-refers to a fabric woven from two or more different types of fiber blended yarns, such as cotton and linen blended, polyester-cotton blended, wool and polyester, etc. The most important feature is that the fiber is used in the spinning process. Mix together (usually mix fibers in the "opening and cleaning process" before spinning).
Interwoven fabrics-refers to fabrics woven with yarns or filaments of different fibers in the warp and weft directions, such as nylon filaments in the warp direction and viscose in the weft direction. Interwoven fabrics and so on.
(2) According to the fiber length and fineness of the woven fabric, it is divided into cotton fabric, medium-length fabric, wool fabric and filament fabric.
Cotton fabric-the length of cotton fiber is about 30 mm, and the yarn composed of fibers of this length is cotton yarn (in order to blend with cotton fiber, the chemical fiber should be cut into this length-cotton chemical fiber), use this The fabric composed of this yarn is a cotton fabric.
Wool fabric-the length of wool is about 75 mm (the difference between different varieties is relatively large), and the yarn composed of fibers at this length is a wool yarn (in order to blend with wool fibers, chemical fibers must be cut to this length- Wool-type chemical fiber), the fabric composed of this yarn is a wool-type fabric.
Medium-length fabrics-fibers between the length of cotton and wool are called medium-long fibers, and the composed yarns are called medium-long fiber yarns, and fabrics composed of such yarns are medium-length fabrics.
Filament fabrics-fabrics woven from filaments, such as rayon fabrics and polyester silk fabrics.
(3) According to the organization structure of the woven fabric, it is divided into plain weave, twill weave, satin weave and other organizations. The concept of fabric organization has been discussed before, so I won't repeat it here.
(4) According to the purpose of composing woven fabric, it can be divided into clothing, home textile, industrial cloth, etc.
2. Knitted fabric: a fabric formed by knitting yarns into loops, divided into weft knitting and warp knitting.
(1) Weft-knitted fabrics are made by feeding the weft into the working needles of the knitting machine from the weft direction, so that the yarns are bent into loops in an orderly manner, and they are formed by threading each other.
(2) Warp knitted fabric is made by using one or several groups of yarns arranged in parallel, which are fed to all working needles of the knitting machine in the warp direction, and formed into loops at the same time. Knitted fabrics are mainly divided into two categories: weft knitted fabrics and warp knitted fabrics. Weft-knitted fabrics are used in sweaters and socks. Warp-knitted fabrics are commonly used as underwear fabrics. Hand-knitting is also a weft-knitting method. In weft knitting, the yarn is reciprocating transversely (or circularly) from one side of the machine to the other, and new knitting loops can be formed in conjunction with the movement of the knitting needle. The weft-knitted fabric yarn runs in the transverse direction, and the formation of the fabric is formed by knitting a course in the course direction by the knitting needles, which are connected with each other up and down. All the loops in a course are knitted from a single yarn. Weft knitted fabrics can be completed on flat knitting machines or circular knitting machines. In warp knitting, a group of warp yarns in the warp direction move longitudinally, and form new knitting loops with the movement of the knitting needle. Warp knitted fabrics and warp knitting machines that produce them are fundamentally different from weft knitted fabrics and weft knitting machines that produce weft knitted fabrics. Yarns are knitted in the warp direction in warp knitted fabrics, just like the warp yarns of woven fabrics. The yarn is supplied by a warp beam, and a large number of parallel yarns are wound on the warp beam, similar to the warp beam in weaving. The direction of the yarn in the warp knitted fabric is warp direction. A vertical stitch is formed in one course and then moved diagonally to another wale to form another stitch in the next course. Yarns in the fabric move in a zigzag pattern from side to side along the length direction, and each stitch in a course is knitted by different yarns. Weft knitted fabrics account for the largest proportion of knitwear. Weft-knitted fabrics mainly include basic weft-knitted fabrics (also known as weft-knitted fabrics, ribbed fabrics, and double reverse knit fabrics), special weft-knitted fabrics (double ribbed knitted fabrics, double-sided knitted fabrics, plush, knitted loops) , Knitted velvet, etc.) warp knitted fabrics are mainly divided into warp flat, warp velvet and warp velvet
3. Non-woven fabric: made by bonding or stitching loose fibers. Two methods are mainly used: bonding and puncture. Using this processing method can greatly simplify the process, reduce costs, increase labor productivity, and has a broad future for development.
Second, according to the yarn raw materials that constitute the fabric
1. Pure textiles: The raw materials of fabrics are all made of the same fiber, including cotton fabrics, wool fabrics, silk fabrics, and polyester fabrics.
2. Blended fabric: The raw material of the fabric is made of two or more different types of fibers, which are blended into yarns, such as polyester-viscose, polyester-acrylic, polyester-cotton and other blended fabrics.
3. Mixed fabric: The raw material of the fabric is made of single yarns of two kinds of fibers, which are combined into strands. There are low-elastic polyester filaments and medium-length hybrids, as well as polyester staple fibers and low-elastic polyester filaments. Mixed into strands and so on.
4. Interwoven fabric: The two direction systems of the fabric are made of different fiber yarns, such as antique satin interwoven with silk and rayon, and Nifu spinning interwoven with nylon and rayon.
3. Classification according to whether the fabric raw materials are dyed
1. White fabric: raw materials without bleaching and dyeing are processed into fabrics, also known as raw fabrics in silk weaving.
2. Colored fabric: The bleached and dyed raw materials or fancy threads are processed into fabrics. Silk weaving is also called cooked fabric.
4. Classification of novel fabrics
1. Bonded cloth: It is made by bonding two pieces of cloth back to back. Bonded cloth, organic fabric, knitted fabric, non-woven fabric, vinyl plastic film, etc., and they can also be combined in different ways.
2. Flocking processing cloth: The cloth is covered with short and dense fiber fluff, with a velvet style, which can be used as clothing and decoration materials.
3. Foam plastic laminated fabric: Adhesive foam plastic on the woven or knitted fabric as the base cloth, mostly used as cold-proof clothing.
4. Coated fabric: The base fabric of woven or knitted fabric is coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC), neoprene, etc. It has superior waterproof function.